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Christian Klauer

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Christian Klauer

Technische Universität Berlin
Fachgebiet Regelungssysteme
Sekretariat EN11
Einsteinufer 17
D-10587 Berlin

Office: EN 230 (Elektrotechnik Neubau)
Phone: +49 (0)30 314-22276
Fax: +49 (0)30 314-21137
Email: klauer@control.tu-berlin.de

Brief Biography

Christian Klauer studied electrical engineering at the Technische Universität Berlin. As a research assistant, he was working on research in process control. Since 2010, he is working towards his PhD thesis in the field of feedback controlled neuro-prosthetic systems at TU Berlin. His research focus is on the use of different sensor technologies like inertial measurement units (IMU) and electromyography (EMG) to simplify and robustify the design of control systems and to improve control performance. Besides research in systems and control theory, he is the leading developer of the open-source framework [OpenRTDynamics] (similar to Simulink) targetting design and implementation of real-time control systems.

Research on feedback controlled Neuro-Prosthetic Systems

Most active research topics

  • Motion feedback control strategies applied to the upper limb extremities using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)
  • Mehods for improving feedback control of Neuro-prosthetic systems. An underlying feefback of the muscular recruitment (Lambda, λ-control) measured by the FES evoked EMG is used. [1]
  • Methods for EMG evaluation
  • Investigation of the effects appearing in λ-controlled and co-contracted antagonistic muscle pairs for the design of control strategies that mimic the natural motor behaviour.
  • Variable sampling rate systems [2, Presentation]; The aim is the application to FES for reducing muscle fatigue.


A novel control method (Lambda, λ-control) was developed which linearises the static input non-linearity (recruitment curve) of FES-activated muscles by fast feedback of the detected muscle activity caused by FES. This activity is estimated by the FES evoked electromyogram (eEMG) [1, Poster, Presentation].

It could be shown that the developed approach robustly compensates the unwanted effects related to uncertainties and time-variances of the highly nonlinear muscular recruitment behaviour [2, Presentation]. The Lambda-control method allows the precise adjustment of the muscular recruitment. Therefore, the feedback-controlled muscles are much easier to model and to control in Neuro-prosthetic systems.


A video showing a typical laboratory experiment: [V].

Open-Source Software Projects

OpenRTdynamics.sf.net (ORTD): A framework for the implementation of advanced real-time control systems aiming to be an open-source alternative to Simulink Coder. It provides additional features including state machines and online-exchangeable sub-simulations. Besides, this framework properly handles multiple threads, their communication, allows to synchronise control systems to external events (e.g. variable timers or incoming network packages) and provides many other nice features. Because of a high-level schematic-description language -- in form of provided Scilab commands -- only a low implementation-effort (no error-prone C-programming) is required.

Journal Articles

Klauer, C., Ferrante, S., Ambrosini, E., Shiri, U., Dähne, F., Schmehl, I., Pedrocchi, A., Schauer, T.. A patient-controlled functional electrical stimulation system for arm weight relief. Medical Engineering & Physics, 2016.

Vidaurre, C., Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Müller, K.R.. EEG-based BCI for the Linear Control of an Upper-Limb Neuroprosthesis. Medical Engineering & Physics, 2016.

Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Reichenfelser, W., Karner, J., Zwicker, S., Gandolla, M., Ambrosini, E., Ferrante, S., Hack, M., Jedlitschenka, A, Duschau-Wicke, A., Gföhler, M., Pedrocchi, A.. Feedback Control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2014.

Ambrosini, E., Ferrante, S., Schauer, T., Klauer, C., Gaffuri, M., Ferrigno, G., Pedrocchi, A.. A myocontrolled neuroprosthesis integrated with a passive exoskeleton to support upper limb activities. Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, 24 (2):307–317, 2014.

Geist, S., Kleinert, T., Klauer, C., Wigger, M., Milbredt, J., Monajemi Nejad, B., Le, T.M., Höser, S.. Dynamic simulation of an integrated thermal separation unit considering practically relevant conditions and limitations. Journal of Process Control, 23 (7):980–989, 2013.

Pedrocchi, A., Ferrante, S., Ambrosini, E., Gandolla, M., Casellato, C., Schauer, T, Klauer, C-, Pascual, J., Vidaurre, C., Gfoehler, M., others. MUNDUS project: MUltimodal Neuroprosthesis for daily Upper limb Support. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 10 (66):1–20, 2013.
Schauer, T., Klauer, C.. Application of Electromyography to Functional Electrical Stimulation (in German). Orthopädie-Technik, 64 (6):26-32, 2013.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Raisch, J.. Joint-angle control by electrical stimulation of antagonistic muscles (in German). at - Automatisierungstechnik, 59 (10):629–637, 2011.

Conference Proceedings

Ruppel, M., Klauer, C., Schauer, T.. Towards a High Motor-Precision Neuroprosthesis by Recruitment-Controlled Antagonistic Muscle Co-activation Strategies. In Submitted to TAR 2017, Berlin, Germany, 2017.
Meyer-Rachner, P., Passon, A., Klauer, C., Schauer, T.. Compensating the effects of FES-Induced Muscle Fatigue by Rehabilitation Robotics During Arm Weight Support. In Submitted to TAR 2017, Berlin, Germany, 2017.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T.. Adaptive Control of a Neuroprosthesis for Stroke Patients Amplifying Weak Residual Shoulder-Muscle Activity. In Submitted to IFAC Would Congress, Toulouse, France, 2017.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T.. Two-Channel Muscle Recruitment (λ)-Control using the Evoked-EMG. In In Proc. of IFESS 2016, La Grande Motte, France, 2016.
Klauer, C., Irmer, M., Schauer, T.. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation. In Proc. of BMT 2015, De Gruyter, page 386–389, 2015.
Ambrosini, E., Schauer, T., Klauer, C., Pedrocchi, A., Ferrigno, G., Ferrante, S.. "Control system for neuro-prostheses integrating induced and volitional effort". In Proc. of 9th IFAC Symposium on Biological and Medical Systems, BMS 2015, Berlin, Germany, 2015.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T.. Discretisation & Control of Irregularly Actuated and Sampled LTI-Systems. In Proc. of the 19th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, IEEE, Międzyzdroje, Poland, 2014.
Klauer, C., Passon, A., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Virtual Weight-Compensating Exoskeleton using λ-Controlled FES. In Proc. of Automed 2013, Dresden, Germany, 2013.
Reichenfelser, W., Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Gfoehler, M.. Hybrid Assistive Device with Gravity Compensation and Feedback Controlled NMES to Support Daily Upper Limb Activities. In Proc. of Automed 2013, Dresden, Germany, 2013.
Klauer, C., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Nonlinear Joint-Angle Feedback Control of Electrically Stimulated and Lambda-Controlled Antagonistic Muscle Pairs. In Proc. of the European Control Conference 2013, Zürich, Switzerland, IEEE, pages 3101–3107, 2013.
Spagnol, P., Klauer, C., Previdi, F., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Modeling and Online-Identification of Electrically Stimulated Antagonistic Muscles for Horizontal Shoulder Abduction and Adduction. In Proc. of the European Control Conference 2013, Zürich, Switzerland, IEEE, pages 3979–3984, 2013.
Klauer, C., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Advanced Control Strategies for Neuro-Prosthetic Systems. In Proc. of TAR 2013, Berlin, Germany, 2013.
Schauer, T., Klauer, C., Karner, J., Reichenfelser, W., Gföhler, M., Ambrosini, E., Ferrante, S., Zwicker, S., Pedrocchi, A.. Feedback control of arm movements for a hybrid assistive system to support daily upper limb activities. In Proc. of TAR 2013, Berlin, Germany, 2013.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Karner, J., Reichenfelser, W., Ambrosisni, E., Ferrante, S., Raisch, J.. Design of feedback control strategies for an arm neuroprothesis combined with an exoskeleton. In Converging Clinical and Engineering Reseach on Neurorehabilitation - Part II, ICNR 2012, page 1189–1193. Springer, 2012.
Ambrosini, E., Ferrante, S., Gföhler, M., Reichenfelser, W., Karner, J., Schauer, T., Klauer, C., Ferrigno, G., Pedrocchi, A.. A hybrid assistive system to support daily upper limb activities. In Proc. of 17th Annual International FES Society Conference, pages 1–4, Banff, Canada, 2012.
Klauer, C., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Linearisation of electrically stimulated muscles by feedback control of the muscular recruitment measured by evoked EMG. In Proc. of the 17th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, IEEE, pages 108–113, Międzyzdroje, Poland, 2012.
Klauer, C., Raisch, J., Schauer, T.. Feedback Control of the Electrical Stimulation Induced Muscular Recruitment Determined by the Evoked Electromyogram. Biomed Tech, 57 (Suppl. 1) 2012.
Ambrosini, E., Ferrante, S., Tibiletti, M., Schauer, T., Klauer, C., Ferrigno, G., Pedrocchi, A.. An EMG-controlled neuroprosthesis for daily upper limb support: A preliminary study. In Proc. of EMBC, IEEE, pages 4259 -4262, 2011.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Raisch, J.. Modellbasierte Regelung der Oberarmbewegung unter Elektrostimulation der Schultermuskulatur, Wismar, Germany, 2011.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Raisch, J.. Geregelte Elektrostimulation der Arm- und Schultermuskulatur bei passiver Gewichtsentlastung. In Proc. of 5th ASIM-Workshop, 2011, Wismar, Germany, 2011.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Raisch, J.. Positionsregelung der oberen Extremitäten mittels Elektrostimulation. In Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 17, Nr. 279, Workshop Automed 2010, page 45–46, Zuerich, Switzerland, 2010.
Klauer, C., Schauer, T., Raisch, J.. High Performance Motion Control by Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation applied to the Upper-Limb. In Proc. of the 15th Annual International FES Society Conference and 10th Vienna Int. Workshop on FES, page 318–320, Vienna, Austria, 2010.


Process modelling and control: A thesis on the development of a model for a distillation column in cooperation with BASF AG: German title: "Modellierung einer Destillationskolonne zur Auslegung von Regelungskonzepten", [Klauer2009].

Student Master- / Bachelor Theses

  • Master Thesis: Upper-Limb Neuroprosthesis for Weight-Support via Feedback-Controlled Multichannel Functional Electrical Stimulation, Dirk Reinhardt, 2016
  • Master Thesis: Untersuchung des Informationsgehalts der beim elektrisch stimulierten Muskel hervorgerufenen EMG-Antwort, Christian Jaenicke, 2015
  • Bachelor Thesis: Modelling, Identification and Control of the Hysteresis occurring in the Recruitment Function of Electrically Stimulated Muscles, Erick Ersada, 2013
  • Master Thesis: A Hybrid Model for Joint Angle Prediction of Electrically and Voluntarily Activated Muscles Using EMG-Measurements, Maximilian Irmer, 2012
  • Master Thesis: Weight Compensation for the Upper Limb by Evoked EMG-Controlled Electrical Stimulation, Arne Passon, 2012
  • Bachelor Thesis: Modellbildung der Beziehung zwischen Stimulationsstärke und eEMG-Signal elektrisch stimulierter Muskeln, Steffen Schäperkötter, 2011
  • Master Thesis: Comparison of Decoupling Strategies for Use in Multivariable Motion Control Systems applied to the Human Limb, Yeqin Gong, 2011

Software for laboratory-experiments at CSG


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